Rekhyt Land

The various Egyptian sects did not envision a clear plan for the creation of man, as research indicates they had several opinions and theories. One view combined materialism with realism, suggesting that God created man from ground clay. Another showed that God’s creation reflected his image and likeness. An alternative viewpoint indicates humans were created as a result of God’s desire and command. Moreover, further poetic opinions claim that God formed people from his eyes and sent them to earth with his tears. As a result, “Ramt”, a word derived from the word “rum” meaning tears, was the name given only to ancient Egyptians.
Ancient Egyptians held a prevalent legendary belief that the creation of humankind merely originated from the heart of Egypt. Then people were dispersed when some rebelled against the authority of God and feared his vengeance and punishment. Some fled to the south or rushed to the north while others procreated forming societies in the west and the East.
From this point onwards, ancient Egyptians identified themselves as an independent nation. They went by various names, some of which were attributed to themselves, like “God’s servants,” while others to their country. The country’s names are divided into three sections: the first are names that replicate the true impact and nature of the environment. The second refers to the sanctities of ancient Egypt. Finally, the third includes names with various meanings, such as depicting “Egypt” as a powerful and miraculous land, calling it “Kemet,” which means “brown,” a representation of the soil’s color, its greenery thickness and its cultivation density. Additionally, Egypt was crowned as the “country of wonders.” Ancient Egyptians were identified as “the people of the black earth.”
Ancient Egyptians were portrayed on temple walls in the form of a worshiping bird called “Rekhyt,” a symbolic image that depicts them in the inscriptions and images within a religious and political context. Through this symbolism, ancient Egyptians ensured their presence in this sacred context.
When it comes to the subject of society, Ancient Egypt was controlled by the King and monarchy to maintain order and security. It was primarily based on three basic classes:
upper, middle and lower, all of whom coexisted peacefully.
Mainly composed of scribes and craftsmen, the middle class enjoyed a distinguished economic and social level. They played the role of mediator as they were characterized by their level of mobility between classes (to a certain degree) and linked with all layers from the ruling authority to the lower class. They regularly received wages, gifts and grants. Due to their service to the nobles and senior officials, they enjoyed a relatively pleasant life. They were well regarded due to their knowledge, proficiency in linguistics, and mastery of the art.
On the other hand, the upper class, including the king, senior officials, religious figures and fighters, acquired the highest position in the hierarchy and enjoyed economic benefits due to the heavy influence on the country’s political system. The king represented the upper echelon of the class as he was the front-runner of the social hierarchy and undertook principal duties towards his country and people. Therefore, any compromising of this centrality led to severe consequences. Additionally, the upper class included the minister, who was at the forefront of the state’s administrative apparatus, as he ruled over all state employees. Also, he was identified to be the mediator between the king and the government.
Serving as the head of judges and leading the country’s highest court, the minister was chosen by the king according to capabilities, competency and decency.  As for the upper-class’ religious figures, they were immensely knowledgeable and well-respected as they held prominent positions amongst the people, profoundly guarding their religious teachings. The ancient writers paid great attention to awareness and knowledge. Warriors on the other hand were often chosen from the members of the elite families and received military sciences and training. They held pivotal positions in ancient Egypt, guarding the king, protecting the ancient Egyptian land, or maintaining order in governorates.
As for the lower class, the majority were farmers, shepherds, fishermen, and craftsmen working in public and private services. Farmers played a pivotal role in this class while workers, craftsmen and others worked in mines, quarries and built cemeteries, temples as well as the great pyramids.
Despite the division of classes, ancient Egyptian society did not rely on social standards for specifying the class to which each individual belongs. Although sons usually get the same job as their fathers, ancient Egyptian society adopted a dynamic approach to assign whoever was qualified for the jobs. In fact, a boy could surpass his father’s position and obtain a prominent, well-established role. This indicates that Ancient Egypt prioritized efficiency and offered opportunities for individuals to flourish in their desired field.
While slavery was practiced in ancient Egypt, all slaves were allowed to maintain a portion of their rights. In reality, people owned by others to sell, rent, or free could inherit their fathers’ farms and marry a free woman without objection from society. This is because morals, values and ideals were exceptionally significant, rather than status and social standards.
Looking into the moral and intellectual foundations which supported the ancient Egyptian civilization, it is evident that they based their moral system on the belief in the existence of God. His care, justice and mercy are what offered them guidance and steered them towards the right path.
Ancient Egyptians believed that a person’s connection and devotion to God impacts and builds their ethical, moral values and life journey. The belief in eternal life along with the consequent belief in reward and punishment allows one to open their hearts to sorrow and grief.  They had ideas of an ideal life after death and holding people religious and ethical responsibility for their actions. Additionally, ancient Egyptians often believed that a human’s life is decided based on God’s determination of their destiny. The king himself derived his moral judgment and laws from religious beliefs. In fact, as he was issuing orders and regulations, he stated that they came in accordance with the rule of the Sun God, aligning with his established values.
Despite ancient Egypt’s moral value system complying with religion, Egypt applied laws that drew principles from these religious values while simultaneously ensuring their implementation. Those who disobeyed the law were subjected to punishment, guaranteeing each individual know their responsibilities.
Ancient Egyptians decided on various punishments according to the crimes committed and granted society the right to carry such penalties. This came in line with the belief that the integrity of life and the reform of society can only be attained by the existence of a set of binding rules regulating the relationship between individuals. Individuals would often lose their respect and honorability within the community when disobeying the law and the agreed standard of morals and ethics. They become a foreigner amongst his family and people, losing respect and acceptance from others.
In conclusion, ancient Egyptians have left an ever-lasting legacy on the world, teaching us the values of humanity. They were deeply connected to God and appreciated life, regardless of their social and economic standards. Practicing benevolence and morality was fundamental to their civilization as they believed right doing was the path to success, prosperity and tranquil eternal life.

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